Proceedings of Regional workshop on Environmental Aspects of ground water development; KURUKSHETRA, INDIA October 17-19, 1994 by Indian Association of Hydrogeologist, Roorkee, Editor Dr. D.C. Singhal, Department of Geology, Kurukshetra University. Published in Honour of Prof. B.B.S. Singhal, eminent hydrogeologist of India by Anubhav Printers and Packers, 15, Civil Lines, New Hardwar Road, Roorkee-247 667, Uttar Pradesh.
Ground water utilization has lately been recognized as a notable component of the available global water resources. Naturally it has aroused wide spread interest amongst its user agencies. Ground water for drinking purpose or right Quality in required Quantity, a basic need for human survival is not within the reach of a large number of rural poor in our country. Many of our rural water supply schemes have not been sustainable, some of the causes being poor operation and maintenance, gradual detoriation of water quality and drying on the source itself. So it is apt to bring out a volume on environmental aspects of ground water development in India by Dr. D.C. Singhal. This volume was brought out in memory of eminent hydrogeologist Prof. B.B.S. Singhal. Dr. Satish Chandra, Chairman (Advisory Committee) and Director, NIH, Roorkee gave a fitting tribute to Prof. Singhal and forwarded this volume.
This volume has been divided into 4 units covering ground water contamination, modelling, ecological impact, sea water intrusion and over exploitation.
First part deals with the ground water contamination and modelling of pollution transport in aquifers (1-171 pages) which includes 21 papers. In our country ground quality related sustainability issues mainly arise, due to improper sanitation, disposal agricultural, industrial and domestic waste water and some cases due to geological and geochemical peculiarities. Solutions have to be found to prevent and cure such quality problems and sustain the same for future use. It is apt to bring the volume with a review paper of Dr. Handa, (a pioneering hydrogeologist) by his own work in various parts of our country. He has compiled his two decade work and gave a new approach to identify the point source and non-point source of pollution, discussed various types of contaminants, their migration and transport in various aquifer systems of india. He has also gave a vivid picture of sea water intrusion in the coastal aquifers of India. Finally, he warmed that contamination of ground water by return irrigation flows in India though various evidence.
Other papers occurring in this part deals with- numerical modelling of pollutant transports in ground waters, but authors (Kashyop & Sharma) have not applied and verified this model with field datas- modern tools, Nuclear techniques and it use in solving pollution in ground water- compilation of datas for iron in ground waters of Bhubaneswar and solution overcome them, - summary of ground water status in Varanasi with particular reference to toxic metals from the field samples collected. General idea about nitrate pollution and its effect on Janpur (UP) region their sources and remedies are discussed, but seasonal spatial variations are not discussed by the authors (Pandey & Mukherjee). Hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical and pollution problem in Dar-er-salaam city of Tanzania are dealt in detail by Mnzava & Kasonta. Other papers are in general deals with individual dissolved ion and metals, uses statistical methods and models to identify and solve the ground water contamination. Few models are reviewed and modified by various authors, but no has attempted to validate the models with field datas. In general, lot of recent references one can come across, while going through these papers. After finishing reading these papers one feel satisfied of getting overall view of ground water quality and contamination in India.
Second part deals with the ground water development and ecological impact (1-85 pages), which includes thirteen papers. In India, numerous environmental problems have cropped up as a result of ground water development and its utilization in our country. This includes depletion in its quality. Various papers in this chapter gives overall view of our countries ground water environment. Dr. Tanwar, Haryana State Irrigation and Tube Well Corporation has discussed in detail the positive and negative environmental impact of ground water developments in general. He has given a statistical records of ground water developments in India from 1966-1994 with more emphasis on Haryana. Ground water laws in resource management and the scope for its modifications were also discussed along with useful tip for its development. GIS and other statistical packages and Remote Sensing techniques used in ground water resource management and their usefulness in interpretation for sustainable development of ground water resource in our country are discussed by various authors. Other papers discusses the tube well development for high and safe yield - effects of agricultural practice on ground water quality - Karst springs and the environmental management - geophysical methods in ground water development. Two paper also give an overall picture about ground water quantity and quality in different subsurface geology.
Water logging and salinity and are wide spread problems in India affecting Indian irrigated agriculture. Further, India is having a largest coastal region, with excessive population with perennial problem of sea water intrusion due to over exploitation of the aquifer for ground water. This chapter is dedicated to sea water encroachment in coastal aquifers and water logging and subsurface drainage (1-84 pages) with 10 papers from all over the country. First paper reviewed the prevention and amelioration of water logging salinity with possible remedy and examples. Other papers discusses in detail the water logging problem in command areas and watersheds. A paper from NIH attempted a remote sensing technique to solve the ground water problem. Geophysical and geochemical methods were employed to identify sea water intrusion in coastal tracts of India (Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, etc.) by various authors. All these papers discusses the mode and origin of sea water intrusion and unfortunately no attempt has been made by anyone to give possible solutions to overcome this problem.
Last unit deals with exploitation of ground water, associated phenomenon and rehabilitation measures (1-66 pages) with nine papers. This chapter reveals the current Indian status with regard to technologies and management systems for assuring a good water supply in adequate quantity on a substantial basis. Various case studies of over exploitation problems in India and possible mitigation were discussed here.
This volume is a document of present day status of ground water research in India. It covers almost entire work carried out in India in the recent part. Editor and other members must be congratulated for their effort. All articles appeared were of reasonable standards, well formatted with good deal of references. It can be used by Post Graduate students, researchers, Private, State and Central Government Organization for ground water resource management. It is a good assist for all libraries. Even though India is having huge fresh water resource, we need proper planning to utilize this precious reserve. In this respect, this volume is of great use to reserve our precious water resource for the present and future generation.
DR. AL. RAMANATHAN
Department of Geology
Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram
Tamil Nadu - 608 002