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INVITED ARTICLE

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Supreme Court Directions to Keep Delhi Clean

On March 1, 1996 in the first ever sustained action to clean up the historic city of Delhi, the Supreme Court ordered all civic agencies to have the city cleaned and scavenged everyday and undertake afforestation drive from April 1 in a big way. The directions were given by a division bench comprising Mr. Justice Kuldip Singh and Mr. Justice Saghir Ahmad on a public interest petition by Dr. B.L. Wadhera, an advocate of the apex court, seeking certain directions to the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) and the New Delhi Municipal Committee (NDMC) to perform their statutory duties-in particular the collection, removal and disposal of garbage and other wastes.

Mr. Justice Kuldip Singh, who delivered the 29-page judgement on behalf of the Court, directed the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi to appoint Municipal or Metropolitan Magistrates under section 469 of the Delhi Act for trial of offenses under these laws i.e., to try offenders for polluting the city in violation of these Acts.

The Court approved an experimental scheme placed before it by the MCD and the NDMC for distribution of polythene bags, door to door collection of garbage and its disposal in certain selected localities of the City. The court directed that these garbage disposal bags should be collected in cleaned receptacles provided by the civic agencies to prevent garbage from being spread all over the garbage collection centers and on the nearby roads. The court also directed the Director General of Doordarshan to undertake a program of educating the residents of Delhi regarding their civic duties, and obligations under the relevant law. The court directed the local authorities to undertake measures for educating the people through public address systems in the localities that they shall be liable for penalty in case they violate any provision of law in the matter of collection and disposal of garbage and other wastes.

The provisions under sections 354, 356 and 357 of the Delhi Act impose statutory obligations on the citizens. These provisions envisage that the owner or occupant of every premises which lacks basic amenities like toilets must have the obnoxious material removed to the nearest receptacle or depot set up for this purpose. It also stipulates that the shop keepers, factory owners and others ensure that rubbish and polluted material accumulated in their premises is disposed of in a manner which should not add to the existing unhygienic conditions. Similarly, those getting their premises repaired or getting a new house or industrial shed built must have its vicinity clear of any obnoxiousmaterial within 24 hours. The Supreme Court has made it clear that if a resident does not collect and dispose of the daily rubbish himself, he is liable to pay a fine of Rs. 100 and for subsequent failure to maintain cleanliness he will be penalized Rs. 20 a day.

The Central Pollution Control Board and the Delhi Pollution Committee will have the responsibility to ensure that the garbage disposal system works efficiently by deputing inspection teams and reporting the situation to the apex court every two months.

Improper disposal of hospital wastes can spread many infectious diseases - it should be incinerated properly and not burnt indiscriminately. It is dangerous to recycle or reuse biomedical waste (except perhaps glassware). Rules lay down that no biomedical waste should be stored beyond a period of three days and that all bio-medical wastes which are non- incinerable must be pre-treated, disinfected and disposed off in an environmentally sound manner. Small nursing homes located in residential areas are often found to be negligent about the disposal of their biomedical waste and it finally gets into nearby municipal dustbins from where rag pickers recycle it.

In April 1995, the Ministry of Environment and Forests issued a notification that managements of hospitals, nursing homes or clinics having more than 30 beds or catering to more than a thousand patients per month must install an incineration in their premises. A grace period of six months were given for compliance. The Ministry issued another notification in October 1995 according to which all hospitals which generate 100 kgs or more of biomedical waste per day must have incinerators.

A survey conducted in Delhi after this grace period revealed no improvement in compliance rate. A survey conducted by Vatavaran (an NGO) revealed that 20 per cent of Delhi s hospitals have bhatties (ovens) in place of incinerators, 10 per cent hospitals cart their biomedical wastes to other hospitals which have incinerators. The remaining take their waste either to a landfill site or burn it in the open.

But incineration of biomedical wastes also needs to be done cautiously. The EPA of USA in 1992 identified medical waste incinerators as the single largest source of dioxin emissions, attributing as mush as 53 per cent of all dioxin to this source. Dioxins and furons are toxic fumes which are produced when compounds containing chlorine and carbon are burnt together at high temperatures (as in incinerators). Medical wastes contain chlorinated compounds like paper or PVCs seen in tubing, blood bags, gloves and other infectious waste.

The court directed the union government to set up incinerators in all hospitals in Delhi which had 50 beds and above for disposal of hospital wastes and report progress to the court in six weeks. The government should also issue notices to all private hospitals and nursing homes to make their own arrangements for hospital waste disposal by incinerators or else pay service charges to civic bodies for disposal of garbage.

Garbage is generally disposed by the civic bodies as land fill. As a permanent measure the court asked the government of Delhi and Civic bodies to approach the National Environmental Engineering Research institute to find alternative methods of garbage and waste disposal instead of sanitary landfills. The court also said that the civic bodies should not use the landfill sites for anything except forestry.

The various provisions of the Delhi Act have been gathering dust in the secretariat stacks. They need to be made alive. it is obvious that sufficiently harsh laws have been enacted and it is the enforcement of the laws that has suffered. While the common citizen heaves a sigh relief that at last, under public interest litigation procedure, his woes have come into spotlight, one also feels very sad at the thought that matters have come to such a pass that the highest court in the nation, at the call of a concerned citizen, has to ask various public bodies to perform their statutory delegations and to initiate enforcement action against violators of the provisions of laws already enacted by the society. Mr. Justice Kuldip Singh and Mr. Justice Sagir Ahmad have in fact voiced the feelings of the common citizen when they observed in their judgement: The city is virtually an open dust-bin. Garbage strewn over public places is a common sight . The judges expressed concern over the civic authorities apathy towards the upkeep of "the world s most polluted city . Public health experts have pointed out that the garbage strewn all over the city is the principal cause of the epidemic outbreak of water borne diseases in the city. When the rains come the water flows over the untreated garbage and carrier disease causing organisms into the drinking water system whose purification also comes to a low key during the rainy season. The court directed the Union government and the Delhi government to financially assist the civic bodies in a just and fair manner to enable them to fulfill the orders of the court.

Prof. D.N. Rao
School of Social Sciences
JNU, New Delhi - 110 067

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Ozone Depleting Substances

The enormous danger in ozone depletion poses to the entire world as well as the clear feasibility of using other chemicals and processes in place of ozone-depleting chemicals, was recognized in 1987 when countries took the historic step if signing the international environmental treaty known as the Montreal Protocol. The Montreal Protocol recommends that industrial countries aid the third world in reducing the consumption of the Chlorofuoro carbons (CFCs) which are the principal industrial chemical responsible for destroying the protective ozone sheath. The Montreal Protocol did not establish any mechanism for aiding the third world countries: subsequently the Montreal Protocol Multilateral Fund (MPMF) was set up with contributions from industrialized countries to assist the third world countries with funds for switching to technologies which use non-ozone depleting chemicals (see Table -1).

Table 1 : CPCs and Alternatives

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Use                     Current CPCs used             Alternatives
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Refrigerants            CPC-11, CPC-12 CPC-114          helium, ammonia, FC-134a
                                                        HCFC-142b, HCFC-22

Airconditioning         CFC-11                          HCFC-22 + HCFC-142b,
                                                        HCFC-134a

Foam blowers            CFC-11, CFC-12                  Water blown foam, HCFC-141b,
                                                        HCFC-123, alternative insulation, 
                                                        vacuum insulation etc.

Sterilization           CFC-12                          Carbon dioxide, HCFC-22

Fire suppressor         halons                          Carbondioxide, no known adequate
                                                        substitutes for some uses

Solvents                CFC-113                         aqueous cleaning, terpenes

Aerosols                CFC-11, CFC-12 HCFC-22,         Carbon dioxide, pump spray
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

By the end of 1995 India had been granted $11.4 million from the MPMF to install ozone friendly industrial technology - and that amount was only 5.7 per cent of the total of $200 million which India was entitled to under the MPMF anda third of what China had already availed of till then.

This underutilization is a cause of concern - it implies that a sizable number of other opportunities are being lost. Pollution and environment related matters have the potential of providing a fillip to Indian industry in the coming decade. the developed countries have already gone into the act and this is one of the factors being pushed in all offers of bilateral trade now. The use of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) like Chlorofluoro Carbons (CFCs) can now be phased out in the refrigeration and airconditioning industry to substitutes such as Hydro Fluoro Carbons (HCFCs) as it has become technically and financially viable to do so. According to data presented at the National Workshop on Ozone Depleting Substances in the Domestic Automotive Refrigeration and Airconditioning in the National Capital Region Organized by the Central Pollution Control Board and Shriram Institute of Industrial Research in February in Delhi the phasing out of CFCs has been tardy and the use of CFCs has been increasing rapidly over the last few years (Table-2).

Table 2 : CFCs consumption in Delhi (mT)

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Years                  CFC - 12                FCFC - 22
------------------------------------------------------------
                Home            Car AC          Home AC
                refrigeration
------------------------------------------------------------
1992-93         334.9            81.6           117.1

1993-94         396.8            88.1           123.7

1994-95         473.2           102.0           145.0

1995-96         535.0           114.6           152.0
------------------------------------------------------------

The refrigeration and airconditioning industry has been asked to begin phasing out Ozone Depleting Chemicals like CFCs to substitute such as HCFCs out of their product line from this year onwards as it has become technically and economically viable to do so. Despite plans for intermediate HCFC step, direct hydrocarbon alternatives have begun to arrive from Europewith funding support. Both Godrej and Voltas recently announced plans to start a cyclopentane foaming plant for their refrigerator line, with help from Swiss Development Corporation and German Technical Fund Agency.

Earlier, on February 15, 1996, while speaking at a function of the two-day Asian-regional Workshop on ODS phased organized by the confederation of Indian Industry (CII) in association with Environment Canada and the UNDP, Mr.N.R. Krishnan Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forests said that a legislative mechanism to phase out the use of ozone depleting substances (ODS) by the year 2010 is likely to be introduced. He, however, felt that the Indian industry would phase out ODS much faster due to market and business reasons. The Union Government may bring in legislation to identify units which use ODSs if they do not come forward to reveal themselves, according to Mr. Anil Aggarwal, Director (Ozone Cell), Ministry of Environment and Forests. The greatest challenge was to implement the phase out in the small and medium enterprise Informal and micro industries would need the maximum help in selecting the right substitute and alternative technology as well as in framing a proposal to be able to access the multilateral fund.

The workshop was addressed by representatives of Montreal Protocol Multilateral fund, world Bank, UNDP, UNEP and UNIDO. This was the first forum where all the agencies involved in implementing ODS phase out and disbursing the Montreal Protocol Fund were present. Presentations were made by firms which have substituted ODS and have also been able to reap financial benefits in the process. Ozone depletion knows no boundaries. and affects everyone - observed Mr. Stanley I. Gooch - Canada s High commissioner in India.

MPMF till now covered mainly large and medium sized units. But now smaller businesses are also on its agenda. This would mean that India s MPMF entitlement would go up to US $322.5 millions. Mean while the remaining of the $ 200 million has already been assured and is only awaiting viable proposals clearly the constraining factor is not the availability of funds but awareness and reach.

Industry in India has to accept the proposition that it is good business in the long run to shift to eco-friendly technologies. There has been a temptation to purchase cheaper technology (and sometimes second -hand plants) which may be obsolete and eco-friendly. This temptation has to be curbed and upto date technologies have to be acquired.

Increasing interdependence of countries has resulted in environmental laws of one only affecting the trade (and growth) of other countries. Eco - standard ISO 14000 is evolving. As the developing countries start to institute environmental standards in manufacturing it will be difficult to export without adoption of eco-friendly technologies in domestic production.

Indian scientists and innovators face a tough challenge to develop technologies and products to meet the emerging international environmental standards in a cot competitive manner. There is an urgent need for an early start in this direction in research establishments.

Prof. D.N. Rao
School of Social Sciences
JNU, New Delhi - 110 067

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Compensation for Environmental Damage

On February 15, 1996 the Supreme Court delivered a path breaking judgement in the Bichri Chemical effluents case. The Supreme court not only ordered the closure of the five offending chemical plants but also told the companies to compensate the villagers for the environmental damage. This verdict marked the first time the court was ordering a polluting industrial unit to pay for the damage caused. The court attached the plant machinery and other immovable assets of the polluting industrial units for carrying out remedial measures to restore the soil as well as the water resources. In the Bhopal gas tragedy earlier compensation was ordered by Supreme Court to be paid to the victims by the offending industry but at that time the court did it in its role as an arbiter. The Bichri case was a public interest litigation started by the Indian Council for Enviro- Legal Action, a Delhi-based NGO. Mr. Justice B.P. Jeevan Reddy and Mr. Justice B.N. Kirpal of the Supreme Court observed The industry was established and operated contrary to Law. The orders of Lawful authorities and courts were violated with impunity .

Hindustan Agro Chemicals Ltd. (Producing oleum), Silver Chemicals and Jyoti Chemicals (producing H acid for export) and two other fertilizer units - Rajasthan Multi Fertilizers and Phosphate India - had been operating the chemical concerns at Bichri Village in Udaipur district of Rajasthan since the mid - eighties. These units were releasing toxic sulphurous sludge highly toxic H-acid and other toxic effluents into the nullah without treatment in violation of all rules. By 1989 the ground water aquifers over large areas had been contaminated. Many wells in the area began to yield contaminated water which was the colour of sewage.

An expert group from the National Environmental Engineering Institute (NEERI) have estimated that the toxic chemicals had turned 350 hectares ofprime wet land into barren wasteland. As many as 77 dug wells, tube wells, and streams within 2 Km of the factories were highly contaminated and unfit for human consumption. NEERI put the damage suffered by the villagers at Rs 3.42 crores. In addition, the damage caused to the environment has been estimated at Rs 37 crore.

By 1989 the contamination of water had reached a stage when cattle began to die and the yield of lands in the area fell. A public interest petition was filed before court by an NGO - the Indian council for Environmental Action - bringing to light woes of people living in the vicinity of chemical industries in the country, Bichri in particular.

In 1989, the court had ordered the effluents but, the managements resorted to the practice of storing it in unlined ponds and spraying it on nearby hill slopes which led to extensive seepage and perculation of the effluents into ground water Hindustan Agro - Chemicals produced for a few months chlorosulphuric acid, which is a toxic and hazardous chemical with out a no objection certificate from the concerned authorities. Matters got worse with April 1987 when Jyoti Chemicals and Silver Chemicals started producing H - acid without obtaining a NOC from Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board. The chemical has a highly acidic effluent which contains a high concentration of dissolved solids and pollutants. The companies had not taken adequate steps to install effluent treatment plants.

The Court while ordering the closure of the 5 polluting chemical units at Bichri said that chemical units, big or small, should be allowed to be set up only after taking all the environmental aspects into consideration. Also, their functioning should be closely monitored to ensure that they do not pollute the environment. It is known that there are about 70 units in the country manufacturing H -acid. Hundreds of other chemical units may also be violating pollution laws endangering lives and causing damage. Apart from the statutory monitoring agencies like the Pollution Control Boards there is need for concerned citizens - scientists and NGO s to be about their possibility.

The apex court made several interesting suggestions for pollution control policy - some for chemical industries and others for all industrial units in the country.

A. Suggestions for chemical industries:

1. All environmental aspects of such units should be monitored closely at the time of their establishment and functioning

2. Existing units should also be inspected from the point of environmental safety.

B. Suggestions for all industrial units in the country:

1. Creation of environmental courts with exclusive jurisdiction to deal with all matter relating to environment.

2. Environmental audit by specialist bodies on a permanent basis, within the poer to inspect, check and take necessary action not only against erring industries as also against erring officials.

3. Strengthening environment protection machinery at the Centre as well as State levels and providing them with more teeth.

4. Heads of units and /or agencies be made accountable personally for lapses and/or negligence by their units/agencies.

Prof. D.N. Rao
School of Social Sciences
JNU, New Delhi - 110 067

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Recent Research in Environmental Policy - a Review

Economically important activities emit gaseous pollutants which have infrared radiation bands and these alter the heating rates in the atmosphere causing the lower atmosphere to heat and the stratosphere to cool. The heating of earth s surface by the sun s radiation is balanced by the emission of long-wave thermal radiation which are absorbed by the gaseous pollutants. They return part of it back to the surface causing an increase in the surface temperature. This process is known as the Green-house effect and has serious consequences on the future climate. Thus policy makers are now busy researching into abatement policies of green-house gases. Environmental policy making has taken a centre-stage in the world today in an attempt to make our planet a better place to live in.

Every aspect of the Green-House Gas (GHG) issue is dominated by fundamental uncertainties; from emission rates through environmental consequences to socioeconomic impacts. Assessment of these problems are a must for purposeful policy prescriptions.

Three types of action for Green-House insurance seems to preoccupy policy analysts:

i. continued intensive scientific research to reduce climate and impact uncertainties;

ii. development of new supply and conservation technology to reduce abatement costs; &

iii. immediate reductions in emissions in order to slow down climate changes.

The major split in policy making community appears to be between (i) & (iii) whereas (ii) may go with either of these options. Opinions are divided between whether to wait and go in for research intensively while others say scientific certainty is elusive and waiting could be costly. Put in simple words, it boils down to act now and learn later or learn now and act later. Apart from ideological differences these reflect differing judgements on the state of ignorance regarding scientific investigation. Policy makers are concerned with the costs and benefits of the two options.

Uncertainty about the damage potential of climate change is large and its scope could be some out put of an energy - economy climate model, feels Gottinger (1995). However, it could also be an input into a decision analytic framework to assess the severity of a policy action under different states of nature.

Decision making in a dynamic framework where parameters of uncertainty are changing is looked at in the paper by Gottinger (1995). Formulation of sensible policies for dealing with global warming is greatly complicated by some fundamental scientific uncertainties that are unlikely to be fully resolved in the near future. This poses an awkward policy dilemma: by the time reliable answers are forthcoming the damage inflicted on us will have increased greatly. On the other hand, enacting a drastic program may impose economic costs and social disruptions, especially on poorer regions, if it is in excess of the requirements and the problem turns out to be less severe than many currently anticipate.

Choices appear to more complicated in a dynamic inter-temporal situation where the value of information is being calculated as a solution to an optimal stochastic dynamic programme. The model developed by Gottinger (1995) allows calculation of a critical probability that characterizes the conditions under which the insurance benefits of immediate regulations exceed their cost. If policy makers perceived probability that emission reduction will be required is greater than the critical probability, the strategy of adopting regulations immediately will impose lower expected resource costs; if the probability is lower, waiting for improved understanding of the likelihood and consequences of GHG accumulation before acting will be cost effective.

Theory provides us with various approaches of assessing the gravity of consequences of GHG emissions. The conventional decision analysis would require policy makers to assess their complete subjective probability distribution for the extent and consequences of the future. This distribution would be used to integrate the value of alternate outcomes across branches of a decision tree and the output would consist of expected values corresponding to alternative policies. With this approach, the role of the subjective probability judgements and the sensitivity of the policy choice to variations in these judgements would be concealed through the integration. Sensitivity analysis would require recalculating the expected value for each probability distribution.

In contrast, the critical probability approach does not require scientists and policy makers to develop a complete distribution, but only to assess whether the bulk of the distribution lies to one side or other side of a specific cut-off. This is because the approach focuses attention on the subjective probability judgement and makes its role in the conclusions transparent. It reduces the level of agreement needed to reach a level of consensus for policy and clarifies the beliefs that require agreement.

It has to be born in mind that GHG emission and climate change are global issues and thus there must exist some coordination among nations; the paper explicitly avoids this important issue. However, it focuses on the question, whether from a global perspective immediate regulations may be appropriate. The answer is that it depends primarily on the quantity of future emissions that is acceptable and the likelihood that regulation to keep emissions to that level will be necessary.

Studies related to GHG emission are all of recent vintage and most initial studies have their origin in the developed nations. Thus, the results and analysis of these studies pertain mainly to situations existing in developed nations which are quite different from the ones existing in developing nations. The engineering type bottom - up perspective and methodology followed in the earlier studies, relied on exogenous specification of economic inputs. However, important macroeconomic effects like energy price feedbacks, revenue recycling, economic growth, trade and the evaluation of policy measures like carbon or energy taxes, were not endogenized in these models.

GHG models can be typified broadly into two categories depending uponthe level of aggregation. The common classification on this basis is bottom - up and top-down types. Bottom-up models make a highly disaggregated representation of the economy and detailed technological specification. Top-down models analyze aggregate economic behaviour. The latter also include feedback between the energy system and the other economic sectors and also with the macroeconomic performance of the economy. On the other hand, bottom - up models pay greater attentions to energy details from the end - use side. Thus, top-down can be said to offer greater endogenizaion of economic behaviour. Moreover bottom -up models are demand driven and provide disaggregated analysis of technical options. Top-down models consider economic sectors at highly disaggregated levels and presume the economy to be in equilibrium as a result of optimal decisions taken by consumers, producers and the government. Different paradigms are also reflected in the dichotomy of the models as well. The bottom-up models subscribe to the optimistic engineering paradigm while up-down models reflect the pessimism of the economic paradigm. The optimism of the former arises from the engineering perspective that believes in the efficiency gap (i.e. technology can be improved to minimize cost of providing energy), while pessimism of the latter originates from the assumption that the present technology mix results from efficient behaviour of agents under prevailing economic conditions.

The UNEP sponsored studies on the developing nations adopted the bottom-top model. The model used for India, minimized the total discounted cost of the energy system. The Indian study reports only the long-run marginal cost of abatement. Traditional biomass fuels are explicitly considered here. However, it suffers from the limitations of the demand-side linear-programming type optimization framework mainly static coefficients, exogenous specification of prices, insensivity to price induced input substitutions and ignorance of supply limitations such as the limited availability of finance to support the presumed development trajectory. The model dynamics being specified from the demand -side, they also suffer from supply-side inconsistency.

However, the UNEP now suggests the use of top-down macroeconomic approach in conjunction with the bottom-up models. The problem associated with the use of top-down models in developing countries is attributed to the non-availability of data required, excessive government involvement and restricted entry into crucial sectors and persistent disequilibrium in the markets. The main problem of using market-type macroeconomic models is that the present models treat developing country dynamics as a caricature of the market oriented economic functioning of advanced industrialized nations. Unreported economic activity in the informal and traditional sectors are ignored. Distortions caused by non-monetized economic activities, weak- market institutions, persistent market disequilibrium, coexistence of numerous production functions for the same commodity and limited choice made available to the consumer are disregarded totally. The non-market interventions go completely unheeded as market-based interventions are relied on in these models.

The bottom-up models are driven by exogenous demand-side parameters and so their projections tend to be achieved by the internal savings in the economy. Without top-down models, most developing country studies give only cursory treatment to important policy options. To understand fully the impact of macroeconomic policies in developing nations, any model should include the representation of traditional sector dynamics and monopolistic control by the government in major energy and infrastructure sectors.

One thing is for certain, that the well-being of a society depends on decisions involving energy-economy interactions. Next thing in order of importance is the energy-pricing policy. The three major elements of an energy policy are the policies for investment, imports and pricing in the energy sector. With growing importance of the energy sector in the economy it is pertinent to ask as to how do these policies affect different sections of the society. Answers to spatial aspects of the problem have been attempted but gender issues have not been addressed in a similar manner. The issue has received attention at the micro-level in terms of technological interventions but they are yet to be addressed at the macro-level policies. Parikh (1995) makes a plea to include gender issues in macro level energy policies such as energy investment, imports and pricing. She feels it is time to start asking -

i. what is the per- capita energy used by man and by woman?

ii. what is the share of non-commercial energy -use for each gender?

iii. for what purpose is it used?

iv. what is time spent and effort used by each gender in accessing energy for their designated uses?

v. what is the expenditure incurred by each gender for energy?

On the macro policy front, commercial energy availability - especially cooking fuels - is constrained by import policies to manage foreign exchange problems. The benefits of clean cooking fuels are greater than the unmanaged supply of non-commercial energy. Liberalization of imports may help more than the quota restrictions practiced in many developing nations.

Parikh says that an energy pricing policy has to ensure that costs are recovered and yet a small section of disadvantaged groups can be subsidized through cross-subsidization. The author feels it desirable to subsidize people in areas near valuable forests and biodiversity for poor women. Controllable commercial fuels should be brought in for use by all strata of society. Only when issues of financing, imports, investment and pricing are recognized at the macro level, will greater impact be made on gender issues in energy. To achieve this end, further studies and surveys would be needed to bridge the knowledge gap.

Parson (1995) is in search of usefulness of environmental policy making by using the concept of integrated assessment.

Assessment here means assembling, summarizing, organizing, interpreting and possibly reconciling pieces of existing knowledge, and communicating them so that they are relevant and helpful for the deliberations of an intelligent but interpret policy maker. Integration means making coherent information from a broader set of domains than would typically be provided by good research from a single discipline. Dimensions and degrees of integration may be different for different applications and also maximal integration is not always an appropriate goal.

Seeking end- to- end integration through formal models at a national global scale is the primary aim of current integrated assessment projects. It brings out three significant representational weaknesses- (i) determinants of decadal -scale emission trends; (ii) valuing impacts and adaptive response; & (iii) the formation and effects of policies. Other forms of integration may be required to meet the needs of policy audiences. It may call for integration by formal modelling or some other mode and it may also require representing decisions of other actors through political and negotiating processes. Going by current practice, no clear, single vision seem to emerge about environmentalpolicy making; through rational global environmental policy would lend support to integrated assessment. Parson (1995) tries to understand the problem by studying a diverse collection of projects pursuing distinct methods and approaches.

References :

Gottinger, Hans W. Regulatory policies uncertainty, Value of Information and Greenhouse Gas emissions in Energy Policy Vol. 23(1): 51-56, 1995.

Kula, E. Economics of Natural Resources, The Environment and Policies . Chapman & Hall, UK., 2nd ed. 1994.

Parikh, Jyoti K. Gender Issues in Energy Policy . in Energy Policy Vol. 23(9): 745-754, 1995.

Parson, Edward A. Integrated Assessment and Environmental Policy Making. In pursuit of usefulness . in Energy Policy Vol. 23(4/5): 463-475, 1995.

Shukla, P.R. Greenhouse Gas Models and Abatement Costs for Developing Nations: A Critical Assessment . in Energy Policy Vol. 23(8): 677-687, 1995.

Som Sankar Ghosh
Centre for Economic Studies and Planning
School of Social Sciences
Jawaharlal Nehru University
New Delhi - 110 067

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