Dr. D. C. Singhal
Professor in Hydrology
University of Roorkee
Roorkee - 247667

Introduction :

Water is a part of the ecological system and the preservation of the quality of environment and ecological balance is a prime consideration in planning, implementation and operation of water projects. The adverse impacts of the overuse of the groundwater on the environment are required to be minimised with the overall responsibility of the State along with the users.

Groundwater, earlier referred to as underground water, forms an important component of utilisable water resources on the globe, and almost one fifth of the world s total water demand is met by groundwater. This natural resource, though distributed widely throughout the world within the pore spaces of geological materials in varying amounts, is replenished mainly by atmospheric precipitation. As groundwater is a hidden resource it is more neglected as compared to surface water and policy decisions of the Government are often oriented towards its mere exploitation.

Groundwater development in India :

India having an area of 329 million hectares, (out of which about two-third is hard rock and rest alluvium in Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputra basin) is bestowed with sizable groundwater resources mainly contributed by rainfall (average annual about 1200 mm) and seepage from unlined canals and tanks. The main use of groundwater is for irrigation. The exploitation has been accelerated since 1965-66, when only 10.52 million hectares of net area was irrigated from groundwater and the figure rose to 22.76 million hectare in 1989-90 as per Statistics reported by Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India. According to Working Group Report on Minor Irrigation, the Irrigation potential created from groundwater upto 1991-92. The Planning Commission has proposed a target of creating additional irrigation potential of 10.71 m.ha. during five year period of 1992-97. Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), the apex organisation for groundwater development in the country has tentatively revised the figure of ultimate potential as 80 m.ha. Based on the CGWB estimates, the utilisable groundwater resources potential of the country has been assessed as 45.34 million hectare. m./year. Out of this, 6.83 m.ha.m. are set apart for drinking etc. and 38.51 m.h.a.m. for irrigation (Saksena, 1994).


This environmental degradation caused due to groundwater development and utilisation may be visible in terms of groundwater depletion, groundwater contamination, saline water intrusion, well and tubewell failures, and subsurface waterlogging and salinity.


The increased density of shallow tubewells, poor groundwater application efficiency, inefficient conjunctive use, increased flood protection works including river control embankments and surface drainage system and introduction of water intensive crops have cumulatively produced negative impacts on groundwater environment leading to excess water table decline (Tanwar, 1994). This scenario is particularly present in so called progressive States like Punjab and Haryana.

The National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development (NABARD) sanctions minor irrigation schemes for states after making block-wise assessment of groundwater with the help of State groundwater organisation. On the basis of the stage of groundwater development five years hence, each block is characterised as dark if there is more than 85% development, those having tendency to grey when it is between 65 and 85%, and white if below 65% Thus, dark blocks can be taken as over exploitation. The states in which the problems of groundwater exploitation is serious are Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Haryana and Gujarat. These assessments are tentative and can not be said to be the true indicator of over exploitation of groundwater resources. Long-term water table fluctuation is the only true indicator of the decline of water table. The Central Ground Water Board is monitoring groundwater levels at more than 12,000 stations each year across the country. A long-term assessment of the trend in groundwater by the Board about 3 years back suggests that water table has fallen by more than 10 meters in some areas in the States of Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Punjab, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu (Prasad, 1994).

Over exploitation of groundwater in any area can be prevented if the development is kept below the annual replenishable recharge (National Water Policy document, 1987). The other method to remedy the situation is the artificial recharge of aquifers.


Groundwater contamination or pollution involves changes in the physico-chemical, and microbiological characteristics, or even in the content of radio-nuclides of water, as a result of anthropogenic activities which render it less useful for further use (Handa, 1994).

The sources contaminating groundwater can be point sources of pollution , where the pollutant entry is discrete and its source can be identified to a specific site or location and its impact on water quality can be quantified and evaluated directly. In non-point or diffuse source of pollution, the pollutant entry is spread over a considerable area. Intermediate between these two types is the line source of pollution, e.g. when a waste effluent is discharged in a unlined drain and seeps underground all along its course before joining a river course or stream. In India, ground water pollution from all these types has been observed. Among point sources of pollution, mention may be made of bacterial contamination caused by indiscriminate siting of hand pumps, poor construction and improper maintenance of dugwells/tubewells, occurrence of unhygienic conditions near extraction sites, discharge of untreated industrial waste effluents into the environment and over pumping resulting in infiltration of saline water. Among diffuse source of pollution , the most important appears to be the return irrigation flows which take with them their load of dissolved salts, plant nutrients (nitrates, phosphates etc.), pesticides etc. to contaminate the receiving ground water bodies. Amongst line sources of pollution , mention may be made of waste effluent discharges into unlined drains or even in beds of non-perennial streams, the seepage of polluted water affecting the quality of dug well waters located along the banks of the streams. Unscientific disposal of human and animal wastes is also playing a significant role in contaminating ground water by microorganisms, nitrates, chlorides, potassium etc. In coastal area over pumping coupled with relatively poor recharge also seems to be affecting the quality of groundwater adversely through influx of saline water (sea water/seepage from salt pans etc.).

Table 1 gives an idea of the contaminants reported in groundwater.

Table 1 : Contaminants reported in ground water (after Handa, 1994).

                                        Type of Contaminant
        Chemical                        Micro-biological        Physical        Radio-chemical
Inorganic               Organic

Cr+3 Cd+2 Zn+2 Pb+2     Detergents      Pathogenic              Turbidity       Radium & other
Fe+2 Ba+2 Mn+3+4 Li+    Alcohols        Bacteria                Colour          Radio-active 
K+ Ni+3+4 Ag+ Mo+2      Phenols         Sulphate reducing;      Particles       nuclides
U Se Hg+2 Al+3         Gasoline        Iron related &          Odour 
Cu+2 F CN Cl-          Pesticides      Slime Producing         Hardness 
B+3 SO4-2 NO3-          Dyes                                    Taste 
NO2- NH PO-2                                                   (salinity)

Contamination of Ground Waters Due To Sea Water Intrusion

India has a very long coastal line stretching from Rann of Kutch in Gujarat to Konkan, Malabar coast to Kanyakumari in the south to northwards along the Coromondal coast to Sunderbans in West Bengal (Fig.2). The climatic conditions, which affect ground water recharge, vary considerably with Kutch having arid to semi-arid climate, while the Malabar coast has tropical humid climate (rainfall over 250 cm annually). The rainfall on the east coast also varies being about 80 cm at Kanyakumari and 100 cm on the Madras coast. However, further northwards, the rainfall again increases being 150-160 cm in the Subarnrekha and Ganga deltaic areas.

Coastal aquifers particularly unconfined aquifers are also subject to saline as well as to contamination by tidal waters; the distnce to which these factors affect ground water quality depends upon several factors including topography of the area.

Pollution of Ground Waters By Nitrates

Nitrogen plays an important role in plant metabolism. It is an essential constituent of different types of metabolic active compounds. Plants obtain most of their N-requirements for growth by absorbing NO3- and NH4+ from the soil. For humans, an important consideration is the fact that NO3- ions can be readily converted to NO2-, which oxidizes haemoglobin to methomoglobin, a pigment ,which is incapable of acting as oxygen carrier in blood. It has been well documented that milk feeds prepared for infants in water containing over 45 mg NO3-/L has been responsible for infant methemoglobinemia (blue baby disease) which resulted in many fatal cases in the period 1960-65. Most health authorities limit nitrate content in potable waters to 45-50 mg NO3-/L.

Studies on nitrate concentrations in ground waters from unconfined or water table aquifers in India have shown that in many cases the NO3 concentrations exceed 100 mg. NO3-/L and in exceptional cases even 1000 mg. NO3-/L (Handa, 1992). Since the use of nitrogenous fertilizers (urea, calcium ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate etc.) has increased considerably during the past few years, it is generally presumed that the main reason behind such anomalously high concentrations of NO3- ions, is the leaching down of nitrate enriched return irrigation flows (Handa, 1992).

Ground Water Pollution Due to Solid Wastes (MUNICIPAL)

In India about 0.33 kg/capita/day of commercial and domestic wastes are produced. With an urban population of about 200 million, it is estimated that about 24 X 106 tonnes of solid wastes are produced annually. The waste is often disposed off in low lying areas. During the rainy season, some of the rainwater percolates through the waste producing leaching comprising of chemical, microbiological products produced by interaction of solid waste with water. The leachates generally contain Cl-, SO2-, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH3- NO2-, Fe2+, organic compounds etc besides some gaseous products like CH4, H2S and CO2 etc. which are partly lost to the atmosphere and may also be partly present in the leachates; the exact composition of the leachate however vary with the composition of the saline waste, temperature, pH, Eh and moisture content prevailing in the solid waste-water mixture.

Proper location of refuse dumping sites and hygienic sealing are quite effective in lessening ground water pollution from these sources.

Ground Water Contamination From Human and Animal Wastes

Human and animal excreta (faeces, dung, urine etc.) contain a variety of pollutants, inorganic, organic & micro-biological, which can affect ground water quality adversely. Humans excrete 100-400 g of faeces (wet weight) and 1.0-1.3 kg of urine daily, the drysolids content ranging from 30-60 g in faeces and 50-70 g in urine. Taking mean values and assuming population of India to be 8.50 millions, the human wastes produced would contain about 4 million tonnes of N, 1.29 million tonnes of P (as P2O5) and 0.93 million tonnes of K (K2O). However, a portion of this waste is lost as runoff, a portion is lost by microbial decomposition, a portion is held up in soil and balance may be leached to the saturated zone. Similarly, considerable amount of N, P & K compounds are released to theenvironment through animal wastes, a portion of the which may reach the ground water body, affecting its quality adversely.

Proper collection and disposal of human nd animal wastes can mitigate the problems associalted with ground water pollution from leachates of these sources.

Pollution of Ground Waters Due to Mining Activities:

The working of mines results, directly or indirectly in deterioration of ground water quality. Production of leachates from piled up solid wastes or from abandoned mines and production of acid mine drainage waters may affect ground water quality directly with addition of toxic wastes into it, while destruction of forest cover, affects recharge and thus may affect ground water quality indirectly.


Waterlogging and salinity are the most serious problems facing the world s irrigated agriculture. But there can be no two opinions that our long term economic survival depends upon how we come to terms with the problem raised by soil and water salinity. Waterlogging and salinity are wide spread in India, but there are means to control these undesirable processes. Salinity prevention and control in irrigation command areas can be effected through combination of a number of structural and institutional measures. The choice of the right combination of interventions can be arrived at through cost effectiveness analysis which considers both the cost and the efficiency with which it is achieved. Water application at farm level could be accomplished with reasonable efficiency by precision leveling. More costly systems like drip and sprinkler irrigation may be adopted where salinity of underground water is high. If, the technological feasibility exists, vertical drainage could effectively control watertable.

Salinity is a major problem in India, Pakistan, China, USA, Soviet Union, Australia, Iraq, Hungary and UAR.

The situation has slightly improved lot but waterlogging and salinity is a still serious problem in north-west India. In India, as a whole, the irrigated area having waterlogging condition has been estimated to be 2.46 million ha. while the salt affected area is 8.5 million ha. (Tyagi, 1994).

Waterlogging and Salinity Control Measures Include:

    1. Improving irrigation management to reduce the amount of groundwater recharge.

    2. Ameliorating salinity effects through sound groundwater management, land use changes, and development of more salt tolerant crops.

    3. Taking actions to lower water table, leaching and evacuation of saline water through drainage.


Groundwater use has immensely increased for irrigation, domestic and industrial purposes. Farmers have growing ambitions in raising high value crops by excessive use of groundwater. The over exploitation of groundwater is causing resource depletion. Groundwater pollution is also increasing with industrial, agricultural, urban and rural development. There is a need to launch comprehensive groundwater management practices including enactment and implementation of groundwater law to achieve equity, environmental sustainability and economic efficiency in the real interest of the present and future human generations. This calls for institutional reforms on priority to reorganise groundwater organs from different departments into a Central Groundwater Authority for adopting sustainable development and management practices by formulation of an effective action plan. This may also necessitate proper education and training of ground water professionals in the Universities by introducing new academic programmes in groundwater management (Singhal, 1996).


Handa, B.K., 1992, Status report on Goundwater pollution in India. (Vols. 1 to 4).

Handa, B.K., 1994. Groundwater Contamination in India (Key paper) Proc. Regional Workshop on Environment Aspects of groundwater Development, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra (Oct., 1994), pp.I-1 to I-33).

Prasad, R.K., 1994. Overexploitation of Groundwater, Associated Phenomenon and Rehabilitation Measures, (Key paper), Proc. Regional Workshop on Environmental Aspects of Groundwater Development, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra (Oct. 1994), pp. IV-1 to IV-8.

Saksena, R.S., 1994. Overexploitation of Groundwater in India Problems and Suggested Measures (Review Paper), Proc. Regional Workshop on Environmental Aspects of groundwater Development, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra (Oct. 1994), pp. IV-9 to IV- 18.

Singhal, D.C., 1996, Environmental Impacts of Groundwater Development (Key Note Paper), First National Conference on Rural Development and Environment, Jiwaji University, Gwalior (March, 1996).

Tanwar, B.S., 1994, Environmental Impact of Groundwater Development (Key paper) Proc. Regional Workshop on Environment Aspects of Groundwater Development, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra (Oct. 1994), pp.II-1 to II-8.

Tyagi, N.K., 1994, Prevention and Amelioration of Waterlogging and Salinity in India: An Overview (Key Paper), Proc. Regional Workshop on Environmental Aspects of Groundwater Development (Oct. 1994), Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, pp.III-1 to III-10. tion of hydrometric studies.


HIMALAYAN GLACIERS : A Sustainable Water Resource

Syed I. Hasnain
School of Environmental Sciences
Jawaharlal Nehru University
New Delhi - 110 067

A glacier is a natural body of ice, originating on land and undergoing movement that transport ice from an area of accumulation to an area of disposal. Glaciers can be found at virtually any latitude on the globe where the mountains are high enough and the moisture supply large enough to promote permanent ice cover. The variables of altitude, latitude, and climate interact to provide regional thresholds above which glaciers may occur. The glaciers are also delicately attuned to their environment. They expand and shrink, advance and recede, enjoy good health and suffer deterioration. They inhabit cold, wet places away from human environment. The presence and absence of glaciers in a basin will depend on many factors like size, orientation and slope of the basin and their interaction with climate. Glacier can be considered on open system with input, storage, transfer and output of mass. It is a system in dynamic equilibrium where mass balance depends on input and output. Input or accumulation include all those ways in which mass is added to a glacier: solid precipitation, wind drift snow, and avalanching. Output or ablation include all the ways in which the mass is lost from a glacier: melting evaporation. The balance is the difference between accumulation and ablation in a hydrological year.

The Himalayan mountain system is the source of one of the world s largest supply for fresh water. The major river systems flowing through this mountain system include the Indus, Ganges, and the Brahmaputra. Their waters sustain one of the greatest concentrations of population on earth. The runoff pattern, its timing and intensity from the Himalaya, is governed by the quantity and distribution of precipitation, its form (solid or liquid) and seasonality. The heaviest rainfall of the summer monsoon occurs along the eastern Himalaya and produces strongest effects on rivers such as the Brahmaputra and Ganges. In contrast, toward the west the predominance of summer monsoon rain decreases and the importance of winter snowfall increases, thus the flow of the Indus is mainly sustained by snowmelt and by ablation of glaciers, whereas the flows in the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers is sustained by runoff components of snowmelt, ablation of glaciers, and monsoon rainfall.

After eighteen years painstaking efforts the Glaciology Divison, Geological Survey of India, has compiled the inventory of the glaciers in the India part of Himalaya. According to Padmashri C.P. Vohra, former Director General of Geological Survey of India under whose leadership the work was done in a personal communication informed me that the glaciers cover an area of 38,039 km2, broadly divided into three river basins- Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra on the Indian side of Himalaya. The Indus basin has the largest number of glaciers- 3,538, followed by the Ganga basin (1,020) and Brahamputra (662). The glaciers are situated in five states- Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim, and Arunanchal Pradesh. Kashmir has the largest concentration with 3,136 glaciers covering 32,000 km2, nearly 13 per cent of the state s territory. The average size of a glacier in the state is 10.24 km2. Nine per cent of U.P.Himalaya are covered by 917 glaciers which extend 3,550 km2 Sikkim has 450 glaciers spread over 912 km2. The average size is 1.59 km2. Arunanchal Pradesh has 162 glaciers covering 228 km2. The average size is 1,41 km2.

It has been estimated by researchers that about 17 per cent of the Himalaya and 37 per cent of Karakoram is presently under permanent ice cover. The principal glaciers of the Himalaya are Siachen 72 km; Gangotri 26 km; Zemu 26 km, Milam 19 km, and Kedarnath 14.5 km.

The Gagotri glacier in the Garhwal Himalaya is the source of River Ganga. The most sacred river in Hindu mythology and considered a bridge between death and rebirth. The Goumukh (snout) of the glacier is situated at an elevation of 4000 m. The glacier has been visited for centuriy s by pilgrims. Grieshbach 1891 sketched the snout during the course of his geological traverses in the region. Macro Pallis (1933) was the first to climb peak within the Gangotri basin. Survey of India under the leadership of Mr. J.C.Ross mapped the snout along with J.B.Auden, of Geological Survey of India in 1934. Auden (1935) stated that the glacier must have receded by (740 m ) during the last century and in the earlier times might have descended to at least Gangotri town and may be even as far down as Jangla. The glacier has been since then visited by various expeditions by the Geological Surver of India namely, Jangpang, 1958; Tewari, 1967, Vohra, 1971, Puri, 1974-75, 1975-76, 1976-77, 1989-90. These expeditions focused on the geomorphology, mass balance, ice flow movement, sedimentological studies and the retreat of the glacier. Tewari (1967) concluded that the glacier since Auden surveyed it in 1935 had retreated by almost 600 m. Vohra in 1971 took an inter-department scientific expedition on the glacier under the aegis of India Committee for International Hydrological Decade.

Recession of the Gangotri glacier

The observation conducted by the Geological Survey of India since 1835 has reported the recessional trend of this glacier.

Table 1.1 : Recession of Gangotri Glacier since 1935.

Period between  No. of          Area vacated by         Average recession
observations    years           the glacier             per year
1935-1956       21.0              52,500 m2                2,500 m2
1956-1962        5.6              36,500 m2                6,158 m2
1962-1971        9.5            1,20,000 m2               12,631 m2
     to          3.8               9,500 m2                2,500 m2
July 1975

Sahai (1992) has reported that the glacier vacated an area of 0.243 km2 during the last fifty years (1935-1990). The annual rate of area vacated by the glacier between 1935 and 1971 (36 years) was 8.77 per cent and in the next six years (1971-1977) this value goes upto 10.4 percent. It is, however striking that in the last thirteen years (1977-1990) the area vacated was exceptionally high 80.8 per cent. Perhaps serious ecological imbalances coupled with increased human activity have caused its recession during the last three decades.

Sahai (1992) has reported that Geological Survey of India has carried out glaciological studies pertaining to mass balance on Tipra Bank (1980-1988) and Dunagiri glacier 1984 to 1991 in the Ganga basin. Mention of similar studies on the Gangotri glacier is also found in the available literature.

Mass balance is an important glaciological parameter as the deviations from steady state mass balance conditions cause a dynamic response of the glacier, resulting in a change of flow rate, leading finally to an advance or retreat of the glacier terminus. These effects also induce the formation of moraines and other morphological features, which allow delineation of the former extent of glaciers.

Hydrological processes

The quantity and timing of discharge in Bhagirathi river with snow and icemelt components of runoff depend therefore on amount, incidence and form (liquid or solid) of precipitation, and on the thermal regime which determines the amount of winter snow pack available and of the melting of perennial ice throughout summer in these basins which are glacierised. The timing and intensity of monsoonal rain storm also determines the shapes of the hydrograph.

The Geological Survey of India reported the measurement of discharge by salt-dilution method in October 1971 towards the end of the ablation season. They found the average discharge to be 29.5 m3/ sec and pH range 6 to 6.5. In the published Records of the GSI 1973-74,1974-75, 1975-76, 1976-77 and 1989-90 there is no mention of hydrometric studies.

A six month discharge (May to November 1994) hydrograph obtained on Dokriani glacier, a small glacier in the Bhagirathi river headwaters has shown that the maximum flows take place in early July when the transient snowline retreats rapidly, however between middle July and September the glacier melt rate is reduced because of extensive cloud cover over the entire elevation range of Garhwal Himalaya. But the flows are partially compensated by the monsoonal precipitation. This type of behavior in the discharge pattern is characteristic of southern Himalaya glaciers where monsoonal rains are widespread.


The perennial rivers of the Indus, Ganga and Brahamputra river system drain the fertile agricultural plans of the north, northeast and northwest part of Indian Sub-continent are mainly snow and glaciers melt fed. The first systematic hydrological studies on proglacial streams were carried out be Kanwar Sain (1946). However, the most noteworthy work was done by Gulati (1973, who delineated the glacierized areas in 20 major rivers having their catchments in the Himalaya (Table 1.3). Aside from these studies no serious efforts have been made to investigate the impact of Himalayan glaciers on the hydrological regime and climate of North India.

In view of frequent flooding and drought problems the Department of Sciences and Technology of the Government of India evolved in 1985 a national coordinated project for the detailed study of glaciers on the southern slopes on the Himalaya. The main objective of this programme is to establish a comprehensive date base on all the important glaciers in the major river basins. A central part of this project to study the hydrological and hydrochemical aspects of meltwater. The information on meltwater yield, its chemical and sediment characteristics is vital to the safety and maintenance of the hydroelectric installations and reservoirs in the outer and inner Himalaya. Recently it was observed that the Bakhra Nangal reservoir was overdrawing from the ice resources of the Sutlej by 10 per cent to 13 per cent of the river flow; from this observation it was concluded that the rate at which the glaciers are melting may lead to their disappearance in future, destroying the ecology of the area and permanently drying out the perennial rivers (Hasnain, 1989).

The climate and meteorology of the Himalayan controls the water resources. If you look at the entire area from the far eastern Himalaya to the far western Karakoram, you find that the monsoon diminishes in intensity and duration as you traverse from east to west. And concomitantly the importance of snow and ice increases from east to west. There are regional and vertical differences in the hydrological regimes of the Himalaya with strong seasonality of precipitation. For example in the eastern Himalaya the summer monsoon causes snow fall at the higher elevations and ice ablation at the lower elevation simultaneously.

Glaciers, in the Himalaya, are sustainable sources of fresh water. While every summer large quantities of meltwater flows from them every winter fresh snow is added. the permanent reservoir of glacier ice is enormous in the Himalaya. therefore, a detailed data base in required on seasonal and permanent ice cover along with establishment of a hydrometric network with measurement of climatic variable over the range of elevations in which the fusion of snow and ice occurs. The principal scientific issues to be focussed in future studies are:

    (1) What are the seasonal variations in the amounts of runoff derived from the melting snow and ice?

    (2) How much do the timing and magnitudes of seasonal variations of runoff change from year to year, and in response to what synoptic climatic conditions ?

    (3) Which hydrometeorological variable at which measurement station are best related to runoff variations and this will be used to predict variations in meltwater flows?

    (4) What delay arises within glacierized basins between melt production and discharge at the glacier terminus ?

Table 1 : Retreat of important Glaciers in the Himalaya.

Glacier         Period          Year    Retreat in meters.
Milam           1849-57         108     1350-after C.P.Vohra.
Pindari         1845-66         121     2840-after C.P.Vohra
                1858-1958       100     2600-after Mayewski & Jeschke, 1979.
Gangotri        1935-76          41     600
Bava-Shigri     1890-1906        16     320-after Mayewski & Jeschke,1979.
                1906-1945        39     1075-after Srikantia & Padi-1963.
Kolahai (J&K)   1857-1909        52     800-after Mayewski
                1912-1961        49     800 and Jeschke,1979.
Machoi (J&K)    1906-1957        51     457-after Tewari, 1971.
Rakhiot         1930-1950        20     600-after Mayewski & Jeschke, 1979.
Chungphar       1930-1950        20     600-after Mayewski & Jeschke, 1979.

Table2 . Principal glacier-fed river systems of the Himalaya.
        River           Major river     Mountain area   Glacier area    Percenta
                        system              (km2)          (km2)        glaciation
1.      Indus                              268842          7890            3.3
2.      Jhelum                              33670           170            5.0
3.      Chenab          Indus               27195          2944           10.0
4.      Ravi                                 8092           206            2.5
5.      Sutlej                              47915          1295            2.7
6.      Beas                                14504           638            4.4
7.      Jamuna                              11655           125            1.1
8.      Ganga                               23501          2312           10.0
9.      Ramganga        Ganga                6734             3            0.04
10.     Kali                                16317           997            6.01
11.     Karnali                             53354          1543            2.9
12.     Gandak                              37814          1845            4.9
13.     Kosi                                61901          1281            2.1
14.     Tista                               12432           495            4.0
15.     Raikad          Brahmaputra         26418           195            0.7
16.     Manas                               31080           528            1.7
17.     Subansiri                           81130           725            4.0
18.     Brahmaputra                        256928          1080            0.4
19.     Dibang                              12950            90            0.7
20      Luhit                               20720           425            2.01


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