Theme – Surface Water


V. Subramanian

School of Environmental Sciences, JNU, New Delhi - 110 067

Almost all the inorganic and organic parameters that are used to define water quality has chemical origin. Either they are: (a) Naturally derived during the soil-water interaction in case of surface waters and aquifer rocks in case of ground waters; (b) Derived from enriched mineral sources particularly for elements such as Arsenic, Mercury and other toxic metals; (c) Contributed by uncontrolled effluents from different types of industries; (d) Urban area input from domestic and other sources; (e) Spillage during transportation processes of various natural and man made materials; (f) Sea water intrusion into the sub-surface water region in coastal areas; (g) Agricultural run off in cultivated regions; (h) Atmospheric deposition, both wet and dry, direct onto various water bodies; (i) Dispersal of wind transported particles in dry regions and their chemical interaction in the aquatic environment and finally (j) In-situ modification of water due to water- sediment- biota and organic interaction both in stagnant and moving water bodies. For each such situation, the nature of interaction can be easily quantified and hence source assigned for specific contaminants. Mass balance calculation is essentially to account for individual parameters from its source to its sink . Microbiological properties, generally measured and normalised in terms of Most Probable Number, have independent origin but their levels are generally related to chemical and/ physical processes that take place in the water column. Caution should be exercised in comparing quality of a given water body to various known standards since these standards - CPCB, WHO or EPA- have specific conditions of application.


Arshdeep Kaur, Chader Parkash and Anish Dua

Department of Zoology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

Harike Wetland, a designated Ramsar site is at the confluence of two rivers, the Sutlej and the Beas and is situated in the Punjab State. The rivers are the easternmost tributaries of the Indus river system. The wetland supports a very good fishery and attracts a large number of migratory birds every winter. The present study revealed that the water quality is deteriorating at all the sites and the damage is more towards the river Sutlej. This can be related to more townships and industries on the banks of Sutlej. It was observed that there is a gradual increase in Temperature, Electrolytic Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Alkalinity, Hardness, Calcium and Magnesium in the Harike waters. This can be attributed to increased siltation, discharge of untreated effluents & municipal waste, and pollution due to agrochemicals from the nearby agricultural fields. Dissolved Oxygen remained about 7 mg/L almost throughout the period. The hardness and total alkalinity values remained above 80 mg/L and 60 mg/L respectively.


Sabu Joseph1 and K.P. Thrivikramaji2

1Dept. of Environmental Sciences and 2Dept. of Geology,

University of Kerala, Kariavattom Campus, 695 581

The Neyyar river basin (area= 492 km2) located on the western slope of Western Ghats in Kerala (N.Lat. 8°15¢00¢¢ & 8°40¢00¢¢ and E. Long. 77°00¢00¢¢ & 77°20¢00¢¢), originates at a place called Agastyamalai in the highland, flows through the midland and low land before finally joining the Laccadive sea at Poovar. This sixth order river (length= 73 Km), with its stream net in rural and / or urban settings, monsoonal climate with a distinct seasonality and intensely farmed catchment, attracts large inputs of chemical fertilizers, soil amendments and pesticides into it. A dam to store water for irrigation, constructed in the highland created a reservoir and resulted in flow regulation. In this study, the river load, (both dissolved, DL and suspended, SL) discharge and their characteristics and transformations due to anthropogenic actions are examined.

Like in other monsoonal river system draining a Precambrian crystalline terrain, the dominant ionic constituents of the dissolved load (DL) are calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, silica, sulphate, and bicarbonate. Chemical erosion, anthropogenic input of materials and atmospheric contribution dictated the profile of the dissolved concentration of elements in the river. Concentration of the ions are within permissible limits and the water in Neyyar falls with in the drinking water standard. As expected in any other part of the world, the relation between suspended load (SL) and dissolved load (DL) content are complementary. In the summer season or during the base flow stage, the SL content is minimal, whereas the DL is very dominant. But opposite is true for the monsoon season or the bankful stage. Borrowing of river-bed-sand has immensely contributed to a sharp increase in SL even during base-flow.


Chandan Mahanta

Civil Engineering Department, IIT Guwahati, Guwahati-781039, Assam

Some key aspects of hydrology, biodiversity and water quality of the Loktak lake (largest wetland of Northeast India; catchment area 980 sq. km.) are associated with its heterogeneous floating soil mass (few centimeters to several metres in size) mixed with vegetation and organic matter locally called "Phumdi". Mostly composed of free-floating plants and partly decomposed roots and rhizomes, these have caused severe infestation throughout the total water-spread area of almost 500 sq. km, occupying about two third of the lake. The proliferation of phumdis have led to reduced water holding capacity, deterioration of water quality, interference in navigation, declined power generation capacity and fallen overall aesthetic value of the lake. Without adequate baseline data, the cause of degradation of the lake ecosystem cannot be determined. However, water chemistry and particulate geochemistry of these floating mass and exchange of chemicals with the underlying water has remained unexplored. In this effort, pore-water and soil samples collected from different phumdis at selected locations were analyzed to study the major ion chemistry and particulate chemical concentrations to have an idea about the extent of degradation of the lake. The soils contained in the phumdis indicated low bulk density (0.12 to 0.28 g/cm2) and high porosity (45% to 58%). Water chemistry of the samples collected around the floating mass scattered over different parts of the lake indicated low dissolved oxygen level ranging between 1.5 to 5 mg/l and slightly acidic pH values. Nutrient availability was indicated to be low with dissolved P concentration of the order of 0.1 to 0.3 mg/l. The soil masses showed particulate organic carbon ranging between 11% and 16%. Mean concentrations of a few trace metals both in the phumdis and bottom soils were found to be similar to natural background values indicating little change in the settling silt load (about 0.34 million tonnes estimated to be deposited each year) brought by runoff, though the phumdi soils were richer in organic matter than the bottom sediments, exhibiting high adsorption potential. Soil samples collected from the phumdis indicated organic matter content as high as 36%. Siltation (mainly due to large scale deforestation, landslide and road construction in the catchment), human encroachment, acute eutrophication and chemical pollution are the major factors of water quality deterioration in the Loktak lake. Industrial effluents are negligible, but fertilizers and pesticides used in agricultural practices around the lake, municipal wastes brought by Nambul river that runs through the Imphal city, soil nutrients from the denuded catchment area and domestic sewage from extensive settlements in and around the lake are responsible for degraded water quality

The hydrology of Loktakl lake is complex. Though the processes of water quality deterioration and quantity reduction in the Loktak lake are yet to be clearly understood and correctly estimated, the chemical composition of the floating soil masses provides ground for a qualitative assessment. The current over-exploitation of the lake is likely to continue, resulting in increasing pollution and further degradation of the lake in future. Considering the spread of the lake in the Moirang valley and its role for fisheries and biodiversity, the impact to the ecology of the entire region could be critical. Current restoration efforts have not been adequate to counter this trend so far. Enhanced water holding capacity by hydrologic interventions at critical zones and control of nutrient input/pollutants from point and non-point sources are necessary to improve flow, capacity and water quality.


Deepak Dhingra and Ashis Kumar Patra

Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology,

Roorkee - 247 667

Rivers are the major weathering agents on the continents and carry enormous amounts of water and sediments (dissolved and suspended) into the world’s oceans From our understanding of the geochemistry of natural waters, it is clear that chemical weathering of silicates leads to consumption of carbon dioxide which is a greenhouse gas. The relationship of weathering and CO2 drawdown can be understood by following equation:

CaSiO3 + 3H2O + 2CO2 à Ca2+ + H4SiO4 + 2HCO3( 2 moles released)

Ca2+ + 2HCO3- à CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O(Only 1 Mole released)

For every mole of silicate weathered, 1 mole of CO2 is locked and not returned to the atmosphere. Over a period of time, they may lead to CO2 deficit in atmosphere and thereby lead to global cooling. Different drainage basins have different geological set up such as varied lithology and different physico-chemical environment and tectonics. Then, of course, each river has got a different discharge. The waters draining different types of rocks are characterized by their own chemical and isotopic signature. This signature depends both upon on chemical composition of bedrock and on the rate at which it is eroded. The Sr isotopic ratio, Ca/Na, HCO3/Na and Mg/Na ratios are particularly well suited to distinguish between carbonate, silicate or rain. We basically aim at understanding the contribution of different geological set ups in terms of carbon dioxide draw down by studying their signature in river water.


B. Gowthaman, K. Vaithiyanathan and J.F. Lawrence

Department of Geology, Presidency College, Chennai - 600 005.

Water both groundwater and surface water is the most vital resource, which is contributing a major share in meeting the requirements of domestic, industrial and agricultural needs. Ramanathapuram coast is a semi-arid region, which receives a annual average rainfall of 980 mm. The Northeast monsoon contributes 70 % of rainfall. Nearly 900 naturally formed rainfed tanks in geological past of the study area holds the rainwater during the monsoon and for a short while in the post monsoon too. Twenty-eight samples have been collected during monsoon period of year 2000 from the surface tanks of the study area and analyzed. With the analyzed results, the surface water has been classified using HYCH program. The following thematic maps have been prepared Viz. Total Dissolved Solids, Salinity and Sodium Hazard, Hardness, Chloride / Bi-carbonate ratio and Water Classification using GIS. From these, it is inferred that water resources are affected by the saline water encroachment along the northeastern and Southern coastal regions. Interior parts fall under fresh water having some intermediate water quality. C5S4 type water, which type water having very high Sodium and high Salinity is observed along the above mentioned coastal regions. Similarly brackish salt and permanent hard water have been identified along the same coastal locations. Groundwater is being pumped near Uppur and Valinokkam (Loc.s 9 & 26) for the saltpans and these development activities may enhance the salinity water encroachment of this area.


R. Arthur James and R. Ramesh

Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025.

Fresh water is a finite resource that without appropriate consideration given to its quantity and quality will not support development particularly in perennial river basin. The major causes of water quality degradation in river basin includes, discharge of toxic chemicals, long range transport of atmospheric pollutants and contamination of river water in substances such as excess of nutrients N and P. The Tamiraparani river basin is one of the most important smaller and perennial river basin in Tamil Nadu. It originates in the Western Ghats and meanders through a distance of about 150 km with a drainage area of 5869 km2. The geochemistry of the river water shows alkaline nature. The total dissolved solids (TDS) are higher during summer (520 mg/l) and lower during monsoon (360 mg/l) season. The rock water interaction and ground water inflow influences the water chemistry. Among the major ions HCO3 derives from both silicate (54%) and carbonate (44%) weathering. Chloride contributes about 26% followed by Na (8%), SO4 (7%), Ca (5%), Mg and H4SiO4 (4%) of the total dissolved solids. A five fold increase in trace metals (As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn) were observed in the downstream region which is derived mainly from anthropogenic sources.


N. Madhavan

School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi

Major ion chemistry of the Indus, and most of its headwater tributaries show the following order Ca (54 ppm) > Mg (12 ppm) > Na+K (10 ppm) and HCO3 (64 ppm) > SO4+Cl (28 ppm). In the Indus River tributaries, however, Na+K (7 ppm) and SO4+Cl (15 ppm) predominate. The Sr component in the source water of Indus (glacial water) is less (0.02 ppm). The calculated Ca/Na, Sr/Na ratios, and strontium compositions of these glacial melts show they represent the silicate end member. These calculations suggest that Sr in the glacial melt water is of silicate origin. The Sr in main channel of Indus is 0.3 ppm and has to be supplied from other sources such as weathering of carbonates and evaporites. This study underscores the importance of weathering of silicates, carbonates, and evaporites in contributing to the Sr concentration and the source waters of the various smaller glacial melts to the major river Indus. The freshwater resource is difficult to assess, owing to a complex and rapidly changing geography of water supply and use.


L.C. Lundin and R.K. Saxena

Dept of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden

In Europe and elsewhere there has been a focus on water management and water quality since the mid-90’s. It has been realized that solving problems with water quality calls for a holistic view of the catchment, including the land use and human activities within it. The recently implemented EU Water Framework Directive aims to ensure sustainable water use by year 2010 in all Member States. The main concept in the directive is to focus on the river basins, ensuring that all measures work together coherently. In Sweden, being a Member State, the directive is in the process of implementation, leading to a new legislation, merging 15 environmental acts into one Environmental Code. A division of the country into a number (most likely in the order of ten) pertaining to River Basin Districts with their own River Basin Authorities, including a common district and authority seated in Finland for the northernmost river basins, is being set up. Fifteen environmental quality objectives (EQO) have been decided upon, of which six directly aim at improved water quality and most others have indirect impact on water quality, e.g., "a varied agricultural landscape". In general the EQOs state that: groundwater should be of high quality, lakes and watercourses should be potential sources of water supply, nutrients and pollutants should not affect marine environments, and unnatural eutrophication and acidification should be eradicated. The plans span over the next 20-25 years. The legislation and objectives call for new approaches within water management and research in several areas; e.g., monitoring networks, assessment of natural background levels, development of holistic approaches to river basin processes, and mass budgets of nutrients and pollutants at various scales.


R. Ramesh

Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025

Water and land are primary resources that face serious conflicts among sectoral users. The available land is undergoing rapid changes in its use and cover and so is the quality and quantity of the available water. Central questions pertaining to the effects of changes in land-use and land-cover on water quality are:

a) What are the causes, processes, impacts and responses of these changes in land use and cover on water resources utilization, particularly during the recent times?

b) Is it possible to estimate in reasonable terms, the magnitude, direction and pace of these changes?

c) How can the understanding of the land use and land cover dynamics and changing water quality, be used for policy guidance?

These are essentially the questions that have been addressed in this paper for a specific river basin: the Tamiraparani.

The Tamiraparani river basin is one of the most important perennial river basins in Tamil Nadu, south India. The conversion of forests to agricultural land has had an impact on the biogeochemical cycles of C, N and P. This paper focuses on nutrient biogeochemistry and its transport characteristics within the river and its flux to the Bay of Bengal. Spatial and seasonal variations of dissolved inorganic nutrients (NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, PO43-, TDP and H4SiO4) were measured from the samples collected from the entire basin, for both the pre and post-monsoon seasons. Distinct seasonal variability in nutrients especially N and P was obvious. In general, the nutrient concentrations were high in the entire river basin but distinct changes were observed between the pre and post monsoon seasons. The very high nutrient levels observed in the headwaters during post-monsoon rapidly decreases with increasing river order. In the mid-stream, the effect of dam plays a vital role in the temporary storage of nutrients during pre-monsoon. However, when discharge is high during monsoon, the effect of floodwaters is felt far below, giving rise to very small spatial changes in nutrient levels in the downstream region. Thus, a clear stratification in nutrient content between the upstream and downstream reaches has been observed and is represented as: forest watershed (upstream)> agricultural inputs (downstream) damming (midstream). It is also clear that in the downstream region, excessive runoff from agricultural areas has significantly elevated N and P content at the point of confluence with the Bay of Bengal.

The most dominant river basin change in land use in this river basin has been the clearing for forests for agriculture. Because of this, non-point sources of pollution (viz., agricultural runoff) have increased considerably over the recent past. Intensive agricultural practices in this basin has led to the additional input of fertilizers which again is a significant N and P source to the river basin. The vast differences in spatial distribution of nutrients through the course of the river is due to the confluence of several tributaries, channels and canals entering the main river at different points. In addition, the presence of large dams across the river plays a vital role in trapping the nutrients particularly during summer. Hence, we have observed a non-linear distribution of nutrients and other elements through the entire course of the river. Our results show that agricultural activities have caused a two-fold increase in nutrient level in the surface water during post-monsoon, in comparison to the pre-monsoon. In the upstream region, the natural forest ecosystem enhances storage of N while the presence of reservoirs reduces nutrient concentration in the midstream significantly. Sediments on the upstream part of the river (forested), act as a sink for C and N with a high concentration of total carbon (2.2%), nitrogen (0.13%) and amino acid (574 µg/l) and decreases significantly as it flows downwards through the urban and agricultural landscapes. However, in the coastal zone, the concentration of C and N increases because of the capacity of the estuarine ecosystem to trap the nutrients and other organic matter derived from the upstream sources, either naturally or through pollution.

Besides "anthropogenic nutrients", this river also receives organochlorine pesticide residues from non-point sources. It has been estimated that HCH residue levels in the surface waters (51 - 829 ng/l) is quite significant in comparison to the major world rivers. In spite of the ban on usage of DDT compounds for agriculture, we have recorded high quantities of this compound at two locations (> 5 ng/l) along the entire river. Perhaps, the persistent use of DDT in eradicating mosquitoes contributes to its high levels in the surface waters and in the sediments.

The estuarine system thereby acts as an effective filter for sediments and pollutants in the coastal zone. Other factors that probably influence nutrient distribution in the Tamiraparani River include the N:P ratio - the nutrient utilization by phytoplankton or primary production. Phosphorus was found to be the controlling nutrient in this river basin. Two main problems have been identified based on the biogeochemistry of this river: i) effect of damming, which significantly restricts not only water movement but also nutrient fluxes from the upstream to the Bay; ii) non-point sources such as agricultural runoff, largely affects the surface water quality.


Ramesh C. Sharma

Department of Environmental sciences, H.N.B.Garhwal University,

Post box-67, Srinagar-Garhwal, 246 174, Uttaranchal

Hyporheic biotope is a potential characteristic of an aquatic ecosystem. It acts as a refuge/hatchery for the aquatic fauna. Hyporheic organisms have been recently recognized as one of the most potential and essential characteristics of the life for the proper functioning of aquatic ecosystem and as means for coping with natural and anthropogenic environmental changes. River water in the Garhwal. Himalaya is deteriorated by non-point pollution, natural and anthropogenic disturbances in the catchment area. Hyporheic biotope, the ecotone between the surface and groundwater of mountain fluvial ecosystem has been identified as a potential zone fore self-purification of infiltrated water through filtration, sedimentation deposition and biological decomposition. This zone is the most vulnerable habitat to environmental change. Hyporheic habitat of Garhwal stream heterotrophic light discontinuity serves as a dividing line between surface and ground water. Functioning of the Hyporheic biotope of fluvial ecosystems of Alaknanda river of Garhwal Himalaya has been assessed through the examination of environmental variables (substrate, temperature, conductivity, DO, pH, PO4, NO3, etc.,). Inventorying and monitoring of Hyporheic organisms (macrozoobenthos, microzoobenthos, microphytobenthos and microbes) have been undertaken for a period of two years for identifying their role in improving the quality of water of the Alaknanda Diversity indices of Hyporheic organisms have also been calculated for assessing the quality of water. Suggestion has been made for conserving the Hyporheic organisms so that they can be instrumental in improving the quality of the water of the river Alaknanda.


S.K. Singh

Civil Engineering Department, Delhi College of Engineering,

Bawana Road, Delhi - 110 042

Water is one of the basic need of human being. Due to urbanisation and industrialisation pollution of water resources is taking place. Ground water pollution is more serious than the surface water pollution as even detection of ground water pollution is difficult. Ground water in our country is getting polluted because of percolation of different sorts of wastes being disposed on surface or into sub-surface. The polluted water which is source of water supply causes a number of water related infections and diseases to the human being. A case study of ground water contamination from industrial effluent has been discussed in this paper. Khetri Copper Plant which is a constituent of Hindustan Copper Limited is situated in Khetri area of Rajasthan. The effluent from this industrial complex is being discharged into a seasonal river Singhana through a nallah. The study shows that the ground water in nearby area has been deteriorated considerably due to effluent disposal. The effect of rain on quality of ground water has also been discussed. In nearby area it is observed that the concentration of contaminants has also increased after rain, inspite of getting reduced due to dilution taking place due to recharge of ground water.


S.P. Biswas and Sanchita Boruah

Department of Life Sciences, Dibrugarh University, Assam, 786 004

The water quality of the river Brahmaputra is highly influenced by a wide range of natural factors (geological, hydrological, meteorological, topographical) as well as anthropogenic (deforestation, construction for flood control, wetland drainage) which in turn has influenced the stability of the river ecosystem. This has resulted in the zonation of the river into five different habitats therefore influencing the faunal distribution. The ecohydrology and nutrient status of the river water is interlinked with annual floods and the present study shows a positive correlation of the hydrobiological characters with transparency (r = 0.73; P < 0.05) and TDS (r = 0.51; P = 0.05) while negative correlation with current flow (r = -0.59; P = 0.05) and water temperature (r = -0.42; P = 0.05). The ecotonal or riparian zones provide adequate food and shelter and also breeding ground for the riverine fauna during flood and enhance the productivity of the riverine ecosystem. Fish yield is also found to be positively correlated with flood impulse ((r = 0.81; P < 0.05).


M. Sundaravadivel and S. V. Srinivasan

Central Pollution Control Board, East Arjun Nagar, Delhi - 110 032

Rapid urbanisation in India has lead to generation of huge quantity of domestic wastewater in urban areas. Most of the cities and towns collect and treat their wastewater using sewage treatment plants (STPs) before disposing into the environment. The treatment units installed in these STPs satisfy mainly the standards for BOD, COD, SS etc., prescribed by regulatory bodies. Water quality monitoring studies carried out by various national and international agencies (including the Central Pollution Control Board) often report that the freshwater bodies in India contain high levels of organic and microbial pollutants. Despite being identified as one of the major water polluting parameters, limiting microbiological standards have yet to be prescribed for disposal of domestic wastewater.

In this paper, the performance of STPs employing different treatment technologies with respect to microbiological parameters in terms of Total Coliform (TC) and Fecal Coliform (FC) removal efficiencies are reported. From the analysis of these results, the need for technologies that can improve microbiological quality of wastewater is identified, as also for prescription of standards for microbiological parameters for urban wastewaters.


M. Vikram Reddy

Department of Zoology & Environmental Science Prog.

Applied Ecology Laboratory, Kakatiya University, Warangal - 506 009, A. P

Plant nutrients particularly nitrogen and phosphorus in excess quantities entering the aquatic bodies both lotic and lentic ones from the catchment areas cause nutrient enrichment, a condition known as Eutrophication of these water bodies. An investigation was carried out on the nutrient enrichment, using bioindicators, due to point source pollution, muniipal sewage inflowing into an urban lake, and the non-point source pollution being agricultural run-off draining into a rivulet running amidst the paddy fields. Both of these water bodies were observed since last five years, their water surface being thickly covered by water hyacinth. However, earlier to that the macrophyte was not seen on both of these water bodies. Some of the water quality parameters of these two water bodies such as dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, pH, hardness, nitrogen nitrate and phosphate were analyzed. The mean dissolved oxygen levels varied from <1 mg/l to about 3 mg/l at different stations in the littoral zone of the lake. When the inflow of the municipal sewage was prevented to a large extent by constructing a physical barrier, entering the lake the dissolved oxygen levels improved significantly in the littoral zone water of the lake. Some of the benthic macroinvertebrate bioindicators, Tubificidae, larvae and pupae of Chironomidae, and other dipteran species, of organic pollution, present earlier disappeared and the density of the former one that was dominant, declined. However, the agricultural run-off containing the nutrients applied in the form of inorganic and organic fertilizers in farmers’ paddy fields, could not be stopped entering the rivulet due to which there was a perrenial cover of water hyacinth on the surface of its water. Its dissolved oxygen levels at different stations were low, which was due to the pimary and secondary effects of nutrient enrichment.


Syed I. Hasnain

Glacier Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences

JNU, New Delhi - 110 067

Detailed analytical data base of major cations and anions have been created on glacier melt-waters and proglacial streams during last decade in the Garhwal Himalyan to assess the Geochemical processes. Ca2+ and Mg+ are the major cations and HCO3- and SO42- are the most dominant anions in these waters. A high correlation among HCO3, Ca and Mg a relatively high contribution of (Ca + Mg) to the total cations (TZ+) and high (Ca + Mg/ Na + K) ratio indicate carbonate weathering could be the primary source of the dissolved ions. Carbonic acid weathering is the major portions - producing reactions in the Alakananda River, while it is coupled reaction, which controls the solute acquisition processes. Dominance of Ca2+, HCO3- and SO42- in glacial meltwater near the glacier snouts and downstream suggests that the weathering is dominated by coupled reactions involving sulphide oxidation and carbonate dissolution. To know the geochemical factors controlling the chemical nature of water, R- mode factor analysis on major ion data from headwater streams has been performed.


P.L. Patel

Delhi College of Engineering, Delhi - 110 042

Several measures like silt excluder and silt extractor are being provisioned to control the silt entry into power canal and thus ensure silt free water for power houses apart from discuuing these measures in brief, existing design considerations of silt excluder have been discussed. Some existing criteria for design of sediment excluder, require modification based on some recent investigation on bed load and suspended load transport of non-uniform sediment. These proposed modifications are described in detail with their improvements over existing criteria.


Anuradha Verma1 and Sujit Kumar Bajpayee2

1 School of Environmental Sciences, JNU, New Delhi - 110 067,

2 NHPC Ltd, Teesta-V, HE project, Singtam, Sikkim

Water samples were collected from a few rivers draining the Western Ghats between 1999 and 2001 in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon. The rivers showed significant seasonal variation in the total dissolved solids (TDS) between the seasons due to the difference in surface runoff and marine influence. Chloride is the most abundant anion in the Mandovi, Zuari and Kalinadi. The rivers of Kerala on contrast have bicarbonate followed by chloride as major anion and calcium and magnesium as major cation. The marine influence was more prominent in the rivers Mandovi, Zuari (in Goa) and Kalinadi (in Karnataka) as compared to the rivers in Kerala as indicated by the Gibbs diagram. The silica stability diagrams are consistent with the presence of keolinite along with chlorite and illite in the sediments of the rivers. The rivers of Goa and Karnataka have significantly higher denundation rates due to the high gradients as compared to the rivers of Kerala. These rivers contribute about 54 x 106 t/yr of dissolved load to the Arabian Sea.


P.G. Jose and V. Subramanian

School of Environmental Sciences, JNU, New Delhi - 110 067

Water samples from 29 locations from the along the River Periyar and its tributaries were collected during monsoon (June, 1989) and non-monsoon (January, 1990). Unlike most Indian rivers pH of river Periyar is slightly acidic, becoming highly acidic for the industrial belt, influenced by acidic wastes dumped into the river. The EC and the dissolved ions varied both seasonally and spatially in Periyar. The reduction of EC and dissolved constituents by about 50% as the river descents to the plains shows the influence of the tributaries Idamalayar and Puyamkutty Ar which flow through relatively pristine grasslands. The high PO4- concentration in the midland stretches of the river (upto 0.4 ppm) can be attributed to fertiliser use. The average dissolved silica concentration (14 ppm) is higher during the monsoon season and is higher than both the Indian and world average. The average Chloride concentration (8 ppm) was found to be comparable to other Indian rivers. The average bicarbonate and sulphate concentrations are far below that of other Indian rivers; probably due to lack carbonate rocks and sulphate minerals in the basin.


Varun Joshi and G.C.S. Negi

Land and Water Resources management Division,

G.B. Pant institute of Himalayan environment and Development

Garwal Unit, P.O.Box. 92, Srinagar(Garwal). Uttaranchal.

In this region springs and seepage’s are the main source of water for the drinking water. Despite the fact that these mountain provide life giving water to millions of the downstream people through perennial river system, the inhabitants are compelled to collect potable water from far off distances, reduce water consumption, consume unhygienic water and face social conflicts. But these sources are either drying up or their discharge is diminishing fast. The discharge patterns are mainly depends on the recharge zones characteristics or type of springs. The recharge zone depends upon vegetational cover, in addition to geological and geomorphologic control in the recharge zones. In the present paper springs discharge pattern in Durgar Gad water shed explores interaction off springs discharge with rainfall, land use and morphological characteristics of the springs.


Roop Narain

Research Officer, Hydrological Observations Circle (Noida),

Central Water Commission, Research Unit, B-5,

Qutub Institutional Area, New Delhi – 110 016

River Yamuna has played an important part in the development of the cities of Delhi and Agra over the time immemorial. It has been a good source of water for drinking, for the inhabitants in the cities and for irrigation, for the rural population along the banks. However, over the last hundred years there has been a considerable growth in population in Delhi whereas the quantity of water available in Yarnuna river has decreased overtime due to more withdrawals in the stream reaches, which has caused concern among the present planners and policy-makers of the city. The concerns have been compounded by the steady deterioration in the quality of water also.

In this paper, the issues of importance and development of Yamuna and Delhi have been discussed with special reference to their past and their future in view of the anticipated problems especially on waterfront. The paper has been divided in three parts. The first part of paper deals with the historical backgrounds and topography of Yarnuna and Delhi.

The second part deals with the various problems and causes of water supply and population in the region. In this part the development of water availability for Delhi, treatment facilities for waste water, quantum of rainfall and the factors responsible for water crisis such as population pressure, non-pricing of water, non-private participation in water supplies, transmission losses in distribution system huge demand of multi-storey complexes and (misplaced) emphasis on water harvesting and a brief account of sources of pollution in the surface and sub surface water bodies have been discussed.

The third part discusses the availability of water in future, the impacts likely to occur due to severe pollution being experienced in the river as well as in the groundwater tables and the strategies and remedies that should be evolved/adopted for the long-term sustenance of the city and river. These are briefly discussed under awareness, regulated water supplies, check on influx of people in the city, adequate pricing of water harvesting of rain water on substantial scale, selectively use of waste water and ultimately a question mark has been raised over the long-term sustenance of good-quality water supply in Delhi.

In the conclusion a brief attempt has been made to indicate that the ultimate solution for the cities like Delhi would be removal of the subsidy factor from the water supply and treatment expenses.


Sarfaraz Ahmad and Syed Iqbal Hasnain

Glacier Research Group, SES, JNU, New Delhi-110 067

For evaluating the effects of farming and development of the orchard on pristine stream water chemistry, the major ion chemistry of water samples from the anthropogenically manipulated and pristine streams in high altitude catchment, Ganga Headwater, Himalaya is described. The result provides a database on pristine stream environment, against which the assessments of the anthropogenic influence on water chemistry has been concluded. In present study the results showed that the terraced agriculture and Apple orchard contributing to the difference in chemistry of stream waters. Water chemistry of streams draining from disturbed landforms showed higher degree of chemical weathering, consequently high solute concentration and less seasonal variability. Along with land-use change the rapid increase in fossil fuel burning and consequently tremendous increase in NOx and SOx emission in the regional atmosphere. It may increase in deposition of acidic oxide and may pose a threat of acidification and eutrophication problem in the region. Because the low alkalinity and diluted water with high concentration of SO4-2 in the stream water derived from the pyrite oxidation suggest increased atmospheric deposition of SOx and NOx compound is likely to cause acidification in near future. These information bases give an early warning of a dormant problem and provide a scope to employ the right kind of land management and policy without much loss of natural resources in near future.


S.K. Singh and Arun Kr. Gupta

Civil Engineering Department, Delhi College of Engineering

Bawana Road, Delhi - 110 042

Arsenic contamination in water is a grave concern in the national and international perspective. The problem of arsenic contamination in water in general and in ground water in particular in some parts of India and other countries has been reported as world’s biggest episode of arsenic pollution. Conservation of sources and management of groundwater quality, therefore, have become the need of the time. Attempts has been made to present information about arsenic pollution and give a state of art of arsenic pollution. Some remedial measures to overcome the problem of arsenic pollution have also been discussed.


Naveen Kalra, Shakeel A. Khan, M.Z. Hussain and Uday Anand Soni

Centre for Applications of Systems Simulation (CASS),

Indian Agricultral Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi-110 012

The productivity of rice-wheat cropping system is a great concern in North West India. The decline or static trend of yield in Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh has been noticed. There is a need to evaluate the causes of this decline, so that the suitable management options can be implemented for sustained productivity. The cropping system has resulted in nutrient mining at a faster rate as noticed from the decline in the organic carbon contents in most of the regions. The delay in sowing of wheat associated with late harvest of paddy also causes significant reduction in wheat yields of the region. The higher consumptive water use associated with this cropping system has resulted in decline in water table in most regions of Punjab and Haryana. The faulty water management practices for higher water requiring crops like rice and wheat has also resulted in nitrate pollution problems in few pockets. The recent modification in the pest’s population is also a matter of concern. In some parts of Punjab and Haryana, the introduction of additional rice crop in the summer season has caused ground water depletion at relatively faster rates. Soil physical environment associated with puddling of soil for rice crop also creates soil structural problems. There is an urgent need to evaluate all the related system’s components to suggest appropriate agronomic and inputs resource management options in order to sustain the productivity of this important cropping system.


Manju Rawat

School of Environmental Sciences, JNU, New Delhi - 110 067

Indiscriminate disposal of untreated industrial wastes constitutes the major component of environmental pollution. Effluents/wastes discharged from industries such as tannery, iron and steel works, plastics, painting, dyes and dyes intermediates etc. are a cause of serious concern. In order to combat pollution caused by these point sources there is a need to inventorise the constituents of effluents/ waste coming out from any industry. Regular inventorisation on the one hand would ensure taking up of effective preventive measures by the industries and on the other hand would help in developing proper effluent treatment plant and disposal from them so that flora and fauna can be protected.

This paper calls for the inventorisation of effluents/wastes from the small-scale industries for proper waste management i.e., end of pipe treatment of wastes, beside this there is need of adoption of cleaner production.


T.V.B. krishna Rao, M. Sivasankaravel and S. Anbukumar

Civil Engineering Department, Delhi College of Engineering, Delhi

A comparative study was done on the impacts of harvesting on the regeneration of bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus (Nees) in the Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh at two harvest sites viz. sites allocated to Forest Department and ITC–BPL. Data pertaining to the structure of the bamboo stands and harvesting strategies adopted were collected using 3 belt transects with the width of 20 m. In each transect, 20 quadrats of 20 ´ 20 m size were placed randomly. Studies indicated that over harvesting was prevalent at both the Forest Dept. (43 %) and ITC – BPL (23 %) sites, when compared to the ideal ‘3n’ harvest rate. Low regeneration at ITC – BPL site can be attributed to lack of management practices like mounding of clumps (1 % vs. 62 % at Forest Dept. site), coupled with practices like clear felling of clumps (18 % vs. 2 % at Forest Dept. Site). Though harvest rate was higher at Forest Dept. Site, regeneration was better, probably because of better management practices. Appropriate management of clumps after harvest is necessary to obtain better regeneration.


M. Subba Rao1, R.K. Suri1 and Dinesh Chand2

1 Ministry of Environment & Forests,Paryavaran Bhawan, CGO Complex, Lodi Road, New Delhi - 110 003.

2Department of Drinking Water Supply,Ministry of Rural Development, Paryavaran Bhawan, CGO Complex, Lodi Road, New Delhi - 110 003.

The textile industry is a key sector in India from the perspective of generating employment and earning foreign exchange. However, this industry posess a serious environmental problem. This industry requires large quantity and high purity of water during various stages of processing to get the finished product. Therefore, the discharge of waste water would obviously be very large and depends upon the type of process employed.

The presence of various chemicals in the waste water makes it highly coloured, alkaline and difficult to treat. It is often found very difficult to remove the colour completely from the treated effluent and it also requires expensive treatment like using activated carbon. The presence of colour in the treated effluents not only make it aesthetically unpleasant but also scares the people in using the same for any domestic or irrigation purpose. The high concentration of dissolved salts in the effluents also makes the effluent unfit for agriculture use. The various treatment options of the effluent depends upon where the treated effluent is ultimately proposed to be disposed of. In this paper an attempt has been made to discuss the water pollution problems associated with the textile industry and various pollution control strategies available to overcome these problems.