The air and water quality monitoring in India is being carried out under the Global Level GEMS Programme as well as the National Level Programme. Starting with the mid-70's, there now exists a fairly extensive network of air and water quality monitoring stations in India. The Water Quality Monitoring Programme started with merely 17 monitoring stations on the river Yamuna in 1977. By, the year 1997 the monitoring network included 495 stations covering almost all the major river basins along with a few medium and minor basins, 35 lakes, 24 ground waters, some creeks, canals, tanks and ponds.
The air quality monitoring results clearly indicate that SPM, SOx and NOx, are predominant air pollutants. Similarly, the water quality monitoring results indicate that organic and bacterial pollution. is most predominant in the aquatic resources. Management of water, both quantitatively and qualitatively, is a critical area to be tackled in all seriousness.